V. 53, n. 3 (2013)

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Log In Sign Up. Dimitri A Pavlov. Anatomical differentiation of the gonads is registered by approximately 5 cm fork length FL and 1. In the ovaries of sexually mature females before spawning, oocytes of all phases and periods of development can be found. Based on the gonadal structure and frequency distribution of oocyte diameter, the type of oogenesis is continuous. DOI: They are distributed mainly in the tropical and logical Center.

Lessa, ; Cherif et al. The time from collection of the live ductive biology and early ontogeny Pavlov et al. A part of the fishes were subjected to biological Luong Thi Bich Thuan,age composition of the analysis including fixation of gonads. Schemes of hormonal stimulation of Parupeneus multifasciatus at which ovulated oocytes were obtained. The injections I and II are designated;ovulation. The oviducts are To study morphological features of oocytes, short, and their caudal parts are fused.

The males have gonadal fragments were fixed in Bouin solution. The comparatively small paired testes Fig. The spermiduct goes along the testis, and visually white video camera and computer. The measurements it is not separated from the testis. The features of sexual dimorphism are absent.

v. 53, n. 3 (2013)

To study oocyte morphology in vivo, oocytes were Among sexually mature individuals, the males usually treated in Serra solution at the stages before onset of larger than the females Pavlov et al. Histological treatment of gonadal tifasciatus is registered in the individuals 5—6 cm in fragments was conducted according to generally fork length FL and 1.

Morphology of the a ovaries and b testes in Parupeneus multifasciatus: 1—testes; 2—spermiducts. Scale bar: 10 mm. During the to the period of maturation.

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In the begins, and the nucleus migrates to the animal pole largest oocytes, a ring composed of small vacuoles is seen Fig. After ovulation, numerous empty follicles in the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus Fig. Differentiation of the gonads in Parupeneus multifasciatus: a, b anatomical and c, d cytological. At the area near the animal pole. Segmentation of yolk same time, the nucleus begins to migrate to the animal remains during the embryonic development Pavlov pole Fig.

Following the appearance of single lipid droplet, more intensive fusion of yolk granules accompanied by hydration of the cytoplasm is observed Fig. The Size Composition of Oocytes oocyte diameter increases insignificantly. In three females, the largest oocytes the surrounding tissues is registered. At the same reaching the final period of oogenesis maturation time, fusion of yolk granules is completed Fig. In become transparent. The whole content of ovulated these cells, a single lipid droplet appeared, and fusion oocytes is transparent Fig.

Cortical alveoli are of yolk granules homogenization began.During the early morning hours of July 31,defendant and Joshua Morgan set fire to a two-family dwelling located in the City of Elmira, Chemung County. Nine people were inside the home at the time the fire was set; two of them — Wendy Baker and her husband, Lawrence Baker — were unable to escape and died.

As a result, defendant was indicted and charged with arson in the first degree and murder in the second degree two counts. This appeal ensued. Defendant first challenges the admissibility of certain of his oral and written statements provided to the police following the fire. The record reflects that defendant initially agreed to be interviewed on the afternoon of September 4, Upon his arrival at the local police station, defendant was advised of his Miranda rights, elected to speak with the police and thereafter made certain statements regarding his activities on the morning in question.

When the interviewing detective accused defendant of lying, defendant became irate and invoked his right to counsel. After defendant calmed down, the detective continued the interview, whereupon defendant gave a written statement and left the police station.

Approximately three weeks later, on September 24,defendant initiated contact with another detective using the "direct connect" function on his cell phone and again made certain statements regarding the circumstances surrounding the fire. Finally, on September 29,defendant's sister contacted the police and arranged for defendant to turn himself in, following which defendant again provided a written statement. County Court found, and the People concede, that suppression of defendant's September 4, written statement was required as such statement was obtained after defendant invoked his right to counsel.

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As to the remaining statements, the record reveals that defendant was not in custody at the time he gave his oral statement to police on September 4, ; defendant agreed to the underlying interview, he was not handcuffed or restrained in any way while at the police station, he was offered an opportunity to use the bathroom during the course of the interview and he left the police station at the conclusion thereof.

Under these circumstances, a reasonable person in defendant's position would have believed that he or she was free to leave and, therefore, no Miranda warnings were required see People v Lewis, 83 A.

Nonetheless, defendant was advised of his Miranda rights and waived those rights before providing his oral statement, which, in turn, was made prior to his invocation of the right to counsel. Under these circumstances, we discern no basis upon which to suppress this statement. We reach a similar conclusion regarding the oral statement given by defendant during the September 24, phone call that he initiated.

Defendant's whereabouts were unknown at the time the call was placed, "and defendant could have ended [the brief conversation] at any time simply by hanging up the phone" People v Pagan, 97 A. Accordingly, defendant cannot be said to have been in custody at the time this statement was made. Finally, although there is no question that defendant was in custody at the time he gave a written statement to the police on September 29,the record reflects that such statement was provided after defendant again was advised of — and waived — his Miranda rights.

To the extent that defendant contends that his invocation of the right to counsel on September 4, mandates suppression of all statements made by him after that date, we disagree. The right to counsel indelibly attaches in two limited situations — where formal judicial proceedings against a defendant have commenced and where an uncharged defendant, who is in custody, has retained or requested an attorney see People v Davis, 75 N.

However, "[a] suspect who is not in custody when he or she invokes the right to counsel can withdraw the request and be questioned by the police" People v Wilson, 93 A.

As defendant was not in custody at the time he invoked his right to counsel on September 4,he was free to withdraw that request or waive such right and speak with the police without having an attorney present — particularly in view of the approximately three weeks that elapsed between his initial request for an attorney and his subsequent statements to law enforcement see People v White, 27 AD3d at As for defendant's assertion that County Court erred in admitting certain rebuttal testimony offered by the People, defendant failed to object to this testimony and, therefore, this issue is not preserved for our review see People v Wallis, 24 A.

Finally, upon due consideration of all of the relevant circumstances, including the nature of the crime and defendant's prior criminal history, the sentence imposed by County Court was neither harsh nor excessive. The arguments raised in defendant's pro se brief are equally unpersuasive. Although defendant now contends that certain testimony regarding a conversation that Morgan had with Larry Baker Jr. In any event, "[t]he [Confrontation] Clause Accordingly, no Crawford violation occurred cf.

People v Ragsdale, 68 A. Defendant's claims of prosecutorial misconduct also are unpreserved for our review, as defendant made no objection to either a certain question posed to him on cross-examination or the allegedly improper comments made by the District Attorney during summation see People v Mosher, 94 A.

In any event, the challenged conduct "was not so egregious or pervasive as to deprive defendant of a fair trial" People v Muniz, 93 A. Finally, we find no merit to defendant's claim of ineffective assistance of counsel.

To the extent that defendant contends that counsel failed to adequately investigate his case, this argument implicates matters outside of the record and, as such, is more properly considered in the context of a CPL article motion see People v Stroman, A. As to the balance of defendant's claim, "[t]he constitutional right to the effective assistance of counsel does not mean that the representation was error free in every respect, but simply that defendant was afforded a fair trial" People v Bjork, A.

Here, the record reveals that counsel engaged in relevant motion practice, presented appropriate opening and closing statements, effectively cross-examined the People's witnesses and registered appropriate objections.

Defendant's remaining arguments, to the extent not specifically addressed, have been examined and found to be lacking in merit.Its third engine makes it more powerful than the Sea Stallion, which it has replaced in the heavy-lift mission. On 27 Januarythe Marine Corps began working with the U.

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The design became more elaborate and the program stretched out, causing the Marines to drop out when they decided they would not receive a working machine in a satisfactory timeframe. In the end, the XCA, although a very innovative and capable machine, never entered production. The HH X was to be used in the assault transportaircraft recovery, personnel transport, and medical evacuation roles.

In the assault transport role, it was to be mostly used to haul heavy equipment instead of troops. Kaman's proposal quickly died when the British government dropped its backing of the Rotodyne program.

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Competition between Boeing Vertol and Sikorsky was intense, with the Chinook having an advantage because it was being acquired by the United States Army. Sikorsky threw everything into the contest and was awarded the contract in July The Marines originally wanted to buy four prototypes but ran into funding problems. Sikorsky, determined to keep the deal, cut their estimate for development costs and said that the program could be done with two prototypes.

The development program did not go entirely smoothly, due to a shortage of engineering resources plus various failures of subcontractors and the government, but these problems were gradually overcome. There was also the problem that U. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara was pushing to maintain "commonality" between the armed services by using the Chinook, but the Marines managed to convince McNamara's staff that the Chinook could not meet their requirements without numerous expensive changes.

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The first YCHA performed its initial flight at the Sikorsky plant in Stratford, Connecticuton 14 Octoberabout four months behind schedule. The Marines had already placed an initial production contract for 16 helicopters in September.

Flight trials went more smoothly than expected, helping make up for the time lost in development. A total of CHAs were built, including the two prototypes. It added a refueling probe, drop fuel tanks and a rescue hoist; it also featured upgraded TGE-3 engines. The CHC was similar except it lacked a refueling probe.

It was used by the USAF for more general transport work. Heavy lifting in tropical climates demanded more power, so the Marines decided to acquire an improved variant, the "CHD", with uprated engines, originally the TGE then later the TGE The CHD also included an uprated transmission to go with the more powerful engines, and a revised interior to permit a load of 55 troops.

The initial flight of the CHD was on 27 January Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Diet has important effects on normal physiology and the potential deleterious effects of high fat diets and obesity on male reproductive health are being increasingly described.

Mice on a HF diet became obese and developed glucose intolerance. Using mass spectrometry, we identify proteins affected in the testis of obese mice. In addition, an important regulator protein paraspeckle component 1, PSPC-1, which interacts with the androgen receptor was significantly downregulated.

Proteomic data was validated using both Western blotting and immunostaining which confirmed and localised protein expression in both mouse and human testis using biopsy specimens. This study focused mainly on the abnormalities that occurred at the protein level and as a result, we have identified several candidate proteins and conducted pathway analysis around the effects of HF diet on the testis providing novel insights not previously described. Some of the identified targets could be targeted therapeutically and future work is directed in this area.

Diet can have a significant impact on normal physiology, with high calorific foods and sedentary lifestyles contributing to the development of obesity, an epidemic in adults, as well as children [ 1 ]. Obesity comes with a plethora of adverse health consequences, including cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidaemias, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and higher incidence of type 2 diabetes and various cancers including female cancers [ 2345 ].

It is also increasingly recognised that being overweight or obese may have a deleterious effects on female fertility [ 67 ]. Men with higher body mass index BMI are more likely to have unfavourable semen parameters with a higher incidence of azoospermia [ 8910 ].

Diets high in saturated fat are negatively correlated with sperm concentration and this has been described to occur in a dose dependent manner [ 11 ]. The association between obesity and impaired male reproductive function is multifactorial, involving alterations at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal HPG axis, as well as direct testicular effects on spermatogenesis and somatic cell function [ 12 ].

Rodent studies which use high fat HF diet to induce obesity reveal reductions in sperm volume and motility with a higher percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm [ 13 ]. Obesity may also increase testicular vulnerability to environmental insults and subfertility from pathophysiological states e.

HF diets affects androgen receptor AR expression essential for male fertility [ 17 ] also causing testicular inflammation, increased oxidative stress causing sperm DNA damage [ 1819 ].

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Effects continue after conception affecting embryo quality and implantation rates [ 20 ]. Furthermore, HF diet may also affect the sperm epigenome with trans-generational effects to the offspring of obese males [ 1821 ]. However, key aberrations in gene targets or pathways in the testis from HF diets are still relatively unknown with modest changes in RNA transcripts in the mouse testis making it challenging to understand pathways by which HF diets exerts such deleterious consequences [ 182223 ].

Gene expression studies are unlikely to be the most relevant investigation to comprehensively understand the effects of HF on the testis, particularly as male germ cells become transcriptionally silent in late spermatogenesis. At the protein level, one recent study used proteomic analysis in conjunction with long non-coding RNA arrays to study testes from rats fed a HF diet; cytoskeleton changes and oxidative stress were found to be important [ 24 ]. Testes were isolated, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and processed for relevant studies.

Samples were processed for histological assessment and immunofluorescence staining. Mice were weighed from 4 weeks of age. At 8 and 27 weeks of age, an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test ipGTT was performed.

v. 53, n. 3 (2013)

Testicular sections from 4 mice per group were analysed for stereological estimates and immunohistochemistry. All membrane washes were undertaken with PBS-T. Peroxidase-labelled rabbit anti-mouse and goat anti-rabbit secondary antibodies Dako, Ely, UK were used at Protein extraction was conducted as previously reported [ 30 ].

Trifluoroacetic acid Sigma Aldrich was added to a final concentration of 0. Supernatant was diluted with water containing 0. MS analysis of tryptic peptides was performed using a Synapt G2-S i mass spectrometer Waters Corporation, Wilmslow, UK further information given in supplementary methods.

Samples were transferred with aqueous 0.PDF format. RTF format. In the matter between:. Heard: 8 March Delivered: 4 April The subsidiary issue is whether or not the appellant had a right to be heard before the court below invoked s B 2 of the Act. In fixing a non-parole period the court said:. It then proceeded to fix a non-parole period of 13 years. With leave of the court below the appellant now appeals to this court against that order.

He continued:. I shall return to the foregoing remarks by the learned judge later in this judgment. Section B provides:. This then brings to the fore the question whether the language of subsection 2, viewed in the context of s B, can sustain the meaning attributable to it by the court below. This is essentially a question of interpretation of the relevant provision.

This approach entails that one may:. Interpretation is the process of attributing meaning to the words used in a document, be it legislation, some other statutory instrument. A sensible meaning is to be preferred to one that leads to insensible or unbusinesslike results or undermines the apparent purpose of the document.

Section 39 2 requires more from a Court than to avoid an interpretation that conflicts with the Bill of Rights. It demands the promotion of the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.

These are to be found in the matrix and totality of rights and values embodied in the Bill of Rights. It could also in appropriate cases be found in the protection of specific rights, like the right to a fair trial in s 35 3which is fundamental to any system of criminal justice. The spirit, purport and objects of the protection of a right to a fair trial therefore have to be considered.

Consequently it went on to fix a non-parole period. What s B 2 in fact does is to enjoin a sentencing court, once it has exercised its discretion under s B 1 a against the convicted person, to then fix the non-parole period in respect of the effective period of imprisonment taking cognisance of the provisions of s B 1 b. First, whether s B ought to be invoked at all.

And if that question is answered in the affirmative, what the length of the non-parole period should be. Before us counsel were ad idem that the appellant was not heard in relation to both issues before the court fixed a non-parole period.

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Therefore the remarks by this court prior to s B still hold good. An order in terms of s B should therefore only be made in exceptional circumstances, when there are facts before the sentencing court that would continue, after sentence, to result in a negative outcome for any future decision about parole.Lorence, Washington, D.

Campbell, Scottsdale, AZ, for Petitioner. Law Office of Michael J. Thomas, L. Evie M. Natalie A. Shiffrin and Michael C. Kiernan, Lynn E. Elane Photography, which does not contest its public accommodation status under the NMHRA, offers wedding photography services to the general. In this case, Elane Photography refused to photograph a commitment ceremony between two women.

Therefore, when Elane Photography refused to photograph a same-sex commitment ceremony, it violated the NMHRA in the same way as if it had refused to photograph a wedding between people of different races.

The purpose of the NMHRA is to ensure that businesses offering services to the general public do not discriminate against protected classes of people, and the United States Supreme Court has made it clear that the First Amendment permits such regulation by states. Businesses that choose to be public accommodations must comply with the NMHRA, although such businesses retain their First Amendment rights to express their religious or political beliefs.

They may, for example, post a disclaimer on their website or in their studio advertising that they oppose same-sex marriage but that they comply with applicable antidiscrimination laws. For these reasons, we affirm the judgment of the Court of Appeals.

Inthe NMHRA was amended to add " sexual orientation" as a class of persons protected from discriminatory treatment. Laws, ch. In this case, we are concerned with discrimination by a public accommodation against a person because of that person's real or perceived homosexuality— that person's propensity to experience feelings of attraction and romantic love for other members of the same sex.

Thus, a business that elects not to offer its goods or services to the public is not subject to the NMHRA. Elane Photography's co-owner and lead photographer, Elaine Huguenin, is personally opposed to same-sex marriage and will not photograph any image or event that.

Huguenin responded to Willock that Elane Photography photographed only " traditional weddings. Huguenin sent Collinsworth a list of pricing information and an invitation to meet with her and discuss her services. A few weeks later, Huguenin again e-mailed Collinsworth to follow up. The Commission concluded that Elane Photography had discriminated against Willock in violation of Section Fwhich prohibits discrimination by public accommodations on the basis of sexual orientation, among other protected classifications.

It awarded Willock attorneys' fees, which Willock later waived. No other monetary or injunctive relief was granted. Elane Photography sought a reversal of the award of attorneys' fees, a declaratory judgment that it had not discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation, and a ruling that its rights had been violated, among other relief.

The parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment, and the district court granted summary judgment for Willock. Elane Photography again appealed, and the Court of Appeals affirmed.

Elane Photography, LLC v. We granted certiorari. For the reasons that follow, we reject Elane Photography's arguments and affirm summary judgment for Willock. See Self v. United Parcel Serv. On appeal, we review a grant of summary judgment de novo. See Juneau v.

Intel Corp.

v. 53, n. 3 (2013)

United States Intelligent legal information. Citation: P. Page 53 P.Supreme Court of Minnesota. Jonathan L. DrewesMichael J. Eric D. CookDavid R. MortensenChristina M. Kevin J. DunlevyMichael E.

John M. WendlandChristopher K. We consider in this case whether a foreclosure by advertisement initiated by appellant 1st Fidelity Loan Servicing, LLC 1st Fidelityto collect the debt secured by a mortgage on the home of respondent Doris Ruiz Ruiz resulted in a valid foreclosure despite 1st Fidelity's failure to comply with certain statutory requirements.

The district court granted summary judgment in favor of 1st Fidelity on the ground that 1st Fidelity had substantially complied with the relevant statutes.

The court of appeals reversed and remanded the case to the district court, concluding that Minnesota's foreclosure by advertisement statutes require strict compliance and that a foreclosing party's failure to strictly comply renders the foreclosure void. For the reasons addressed below, we conclude that a party must strictly comply with Minn. Because 1st Fidelity did not strictly comply with section Inappellant Doris Ruiz executed a promissory note payable to Chase Bank, NA, and a mortgage deed on a duplex located in Minneapolis to secure the indebtedness under the note.

The mortgage deed was recorded by the Hennepin County Recorder in August This first assignment was recorded in June by the Hennepin County Recorder. Ruiz defaulted under the terms of the note and mortgage in September A second assignment of the mortgage was executed in September When Ruiz did not respond or cure the default, 1st Fidelity commenced proceedings to foreclose the mortgage by advertisement.

A foreclosure by advertisement proceeding involves the publication and recording of various notices. See Minn. On May 18,1st Fidelity published the first notice of foreclosure sale and recorded a notice of pendency of foreclosure. In addition, a third assignment was recorded. The law firm representing 1st Fidelity hand-delivered the third assignment and the notice of pendency to the Hennepin County Recorder on May 14, But this third assignment and the notice of pendency were not recorded until May 18, Ruiz then served and filed an affidavit of postponement, which postponed the original foreclosure sale date for five months but reduced the redemption period from six months to five weeks.

Ruiz failed to redeem the property. Ruiz subsequently filed a complaint alleging four claims: 1 failure to strictly comply with the assignment recording requirement, Minn.

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Ruiz sought both a declaration that the sheriff's sale was null and void and the recovery of monetary damages. Ruiz subsequently amended the complaint to include a quiet-title action, Minn. The district court granted 1st Fidelity summary judgment, concluding that the second assignment transferred title to the property to 1st Fidelity before the first publication of the notice of sale, and that there was no genuine issue of material fact as to whether 1st Fidelity provided Ruiz the pre-foreclosure counseling notice.

The district court also observed that, under Minn.


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